[Number patterns and sums with hands-on + Scratch coding activities, for Grades 2-8]

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**LESSONS IN THIS MODULE**

**Using the lessons**

Each of the lessons listed below has 2 parts:

- — Teaching Notes
- — Lesson

Click on a lesson title below to jump to that lesson.

Students use code to visually and dynamically represent numbers pattern on a 100 chart.

They learn about remainders and use them to create patterns.

Students use < and > signs to identify subsets of the 100 chart.

They also use AND and OR. For example:

- — Number > 20 and Numbers < 80
- — Number < 21 or Number > 79

Students connect the remainder to everyday events, such as hours on a clock and days in a week.

For example, when we say that 5 hours past 10 is 3 o’clock, we are also saying that 15 (10+5) has a reminder of 3 when divided by 12.

# 1. **MULTIPLES**

## TEACHING NOTES

**CONTEXT**

Students use code to visually and dynamically represent numbers pattern on a 100 chart.

They learn about remainders and use them to create patterns.

**TEACHING & LEARNING**

The code uses an if/do conditional statement.

The divisibility conditions may be expressed in 2 different ways, as shown below.

Students develop multiplication and division concepts and facts incidentally, as they use them to create visual patterns on the 100 chart.

This lesson has been used in a number of grade2/3 classrooms. The visual and dynamic nature of the patterns attracts students’ mathematical attention.

## LESSON

**100 CHART PATTERNS**

1. Go to bit.ly/sets-1.

2. Run the code to see the pattern below.

3. What set of numbers does this pattern represent?

4. Edit the code to get each of the following patterns:

**ODDS & EVENS**

5. Go to bit.ly/sets-5.

6. Edit the code to highlight:

**VERTICAL & DIAGONAL PATTERNS**

7. Some of the 100 chart patterns are vertical (see A) and some are diagonal. Some of the diagonal patterns drop to the right (see B) and others drop to the left (see C).

8. Go to bit.ly/sets-1.

9. Replace “3” with each of the numbers 2-12.

10. Develop rules for deciding when the 100 chart patterns are:

# 2. **COLOUR PATTERNS**

## TEACHING NOTES

**CONTEXT**

Students use < and > signs to identify subsets of the 100 chart.

They also use AND and OR. For example:

- — Number > 20 and Numbers < 80
- — Number < 21 or Number > 79

**TEACHING & LEARNING**

Students develop concepts and facts related o multiplication, division and inequalities incidentally, as they use them in code and see them come to life as dynamic/visual patterns on the 100 chart.

## LESSON

**COLOUR PATTERNS**

1. Go to bit.ly/sets-3.

2. Run the code.

3. Edit the code to create the pattern shown on the right.

4. Edit the code to create your own patterns.

**MORE OR LESS**

5. Go to bit.ly/sets-3.

6. Edit the code as shown below.

7. Run the code.

8. Edit the code to get the pattern shown below.

**AND & OR**

9. Go to http://bit.ly/sets-6.

10. Run the code to see the pattern below.

11. Write to explain why only numbers 11-19 are not shaded yellow.

12. Edit the code to get the pattern shown below.

13. Edit the code to place a Gork in front of the following numbers:

14. Go to bit.ly/sets-7.

15. Run the code to see the pattern below.

16. Edit the code to place a Gork in front of the following numbers:

17. Write to explain the meaning and effect of **and** & **or** in the code blocks shown below.

# 3. **REMAINDERS**

## TEACHING NOTES

**CONTEXT**

Students connect the remainder to everyday events, such as hours on a clock and days in a week.

For example, when we say that 5 hours past 10 is 3 o’clock, we are also saying that 15 (10+5) has a reminder of 3 when divided by 12.

**TEACHING & LEARNING**

Students use a third way of checking the remainder when dividing: **modulo** or **mod**.

Modulo (or mod) is the mathematical operation of finding the remainder when a number is divided by another.

Modular arithmetic is useful in computer science in a variety of setting, including encryption and verification of ISBN numbers.

## LESSON

**100 CHART PATTERNS**

1. Go to bit.ly/sets-1.

2. Run the code to see the pattern on the right.

3. In the code, replace

with

4. Run the code to see what difference this makes. Explain what you notice.

5. Then replace with

6. Run the code to see what difference this makes.

7. “**mod**” or “**modulo**” is a mathematical operation, like “add” or “multiply”. “10 mod 3” means “**find the remainder** when 10 is divided by 3”

8. Which of the 3 code blocks shown above would you prefer to use? Why?

**HOURS & HOURS**

9. What time will the clock read when it’s:

10. Go to bit.ly/sets-4 and run the code.

**WEEK AFTER WEEK**

11. In Canada, the first day of the week is considered to be Sunday.

12. If today is Tuesday, what day of the week will it be:

13. How might you edit the code at bit.ly/sets-4 to help answer the above questions.